Diseases are a major source of crop and plant damage that can be caused by a number of plant disease-causing organisms. Fungi are the number one cause of crop loss worldwide. Viruses, nematodes, and bacteria also cause diseases in plants . Symptoms resembling those caused by pathogens can be caused by non-living factors, such as nutrient deficiency and air pollution and also insects
Fungicides, herbicides and insecticides are all pesticides used in plant protection. A fungicide is a specific type of pesticide that controls fungal disease by specifically inhibiting or killing the fungus causing the disease.
When properly applied at the correct times, fungicides usually perform very well and have an acceptable margin of safety to humans, wild life, and crop plants. However, we still need new fungicides for several reasons. Despite the large total number of fungicides that are available, each particular crop disease typically is well controlled by only two or three marketed fungicides, each with its strengths and limitations. A wider choice of treatment is desirable for many crop diseases. The development of resistant mutants of target pathogens has led to losses of effectiveness, in certain regions and uses, of most of the modern fungicide classes. Further resistance problems seem likely to arise despite the considerable efforts of the agrochemical industry and farm advisory services to promote the use of countermeasures. New types of fungicide can act as effective replacements for these problem situations and also increase the diversity of treatment, which is a mainstay of fungicide resistance management. Certain fungicides, for example, captafol, binapacryl, organomercurials, and ethylenebisdithiocarbamates, have been banned from or restricted in commercial application because of perceived toxicological risks or because manufacturers are not prepared to do additional toxicological or environmental safety evaluations required by regulatory authorities, and further withdrawals for these reasons are likely to occur.
Benefits of using Fungicides:
Fungicides are applied as dust, granules, gas, and, most commonly, liquid. They are applied to: